Employing European tax analyzer simulation method and compile simulation program based on Z-Tree experiment platform, this paper research the difference among three different tax preference policy (which are super deduction (SD), investment tax credit (ITC) and taxable income deduction (TID)) for R&D investment under dynamic interaction process through introducing the judgement of decision by experimental participants. Through multi-round, multi-phase experiments, the research and development investment data and enterprise characteristic data were collected, and the empirical study based on the data find that TID is more effective in stimulating R&D and effort investment than that of SD and ITC. We also find that R&D and effort investment are positively related to the degree of tax preference under the condition of controlling the tax preference intensity and financial constraint. Based on the research conclusions, we suggest that taxable income deduction (TID) is a more effective policy selection for stimulating innovation and the finance report should disclose the amount of tax preference to better the incentive effective.
This paper investigates the impact of different contracts on incentives and profits in a two-stage supply chain in which supplier is responsible for the innovation of key components while the manufacturer takes responsibility for the product manufacturing and selling. When the demand is influenced by the manufacturer's marketing effort and supplier's innovation level, the influence of the interaction mechanism of innovation effect and marketing effect on players' decision-making is analyzed. The results show that:the potential for innovation effect leads to manufacturer stimulating supplier innovation more positively while the marketing effect plays an important role in innovation activities; the innovation effect and marketing effect have positive influence on the players' profits and decisions; under the combined effect of innovation and marketing, although the manufacturer gets a higher profits using the quality-based wholesale price contract, the innovation level of supplier is low even less than the wholesale price case; furthermore, this paper introduces a cost-sharing contract, and it shows that the manufacturer can get the optimal profit, at the same time, effectively incentive the supplier innovation.
In a product service supply chain (PSSC) consisting of a manufacturer and a service integrator, consumers' strategic waiting behavior is considered when they purchase a product-service system (PSS) from the service integrator. By building a two-period dynamic game model, how the strategic consumer behavior and equilibrium results are affected by the valuation of the PSS, cost and proportion of service valuation (accounts for the valuation of PSS) is analyzed. Moreover, performance under the decentralized decision is compared with that under the centralized decision and a two-period revenue sharing contract is proposed to achieve the supply chain coordination. The following results are obtained:the improvement of the valuation of PSS and the proportion of service valuation can reduce the strategic consumer behavior, and thus improve profits of both PSSC and two parties; high valuation of PSS and high proportion of service valuation can not only increase the supply chain's profit under the decentralized decision, but also broaden the gap between the supply chain's profit under the decentralized decision and that under the centralized decision; the revenue sharing contract can adjust strategic consumer behavior. That is, when the proportion of service valuation is high, the adjustment of price can restrain the strategic consumer behavior, and thus achieve the supply chain coordination.
To study the impact of fairness preference on extended warranty (EW) decision-making and supply chain coordination, we construct a two-level supply chain system with single dominated retailer who provides the extended warranty (EW) and single manufactory has fairness preference. Firstly, the impact of fairness preference on node enterprises' decision and profits in the centralized and decentralized models are examined and analyzed respectively. The results show that product prices and fairness preference are positively related, but EW price, EW quality, and node enterprises' profits and the total system are negatively related to fairness preference. And fairness preference will intensify the loss of supply chain decision efficiency. Then, the coordination problem of the supply chain system is studied. It is shown that the supply chain system could not be coordinated by traditional revenue-sharing contract. However, there exists a Pareto improvement for the two-part tariff contract, whether it can realize perfect coordination depends on fairness preference. The stronger fairness preference of manufacturer is, the worse the effectiveness is.
This paper studies a two-stage decentralized supply chain that consists of a monopoly manufacturer and two oligopoly retailers. We accordingly set up the players' profit models under four scenarios:none of the players adopts RFID (Scenario N), only Retailer 1 adopts RFID (Scenario L), only Retailer 2 adopts RFID (Scenario F), and all players adopt RFID (Scenario T). We obtain the players' optimal decision-variables and revenues. Furthermore, we discuss the equilibrium strategies of RFID adoption in competitive retailers' supply chain. We find that the retailer's wholesale price is related to whether invests in RFID or not, meanwhile, it is unrelated to the competitor's RFID investment strategy. Compared to the Scenario N, it causes Retailer 2 to have positive externality in Scenarios L when the RFID cost is low, however, it causes Retailer 1 to have negative externality in Scenarios F. When the RFID cost is low, Scenario T is the equilibrium strategy for the supply chain. When the RFID cost is higher, the equilibrium strategy for the supply chain is L or F, depending on the retailers' misplaced rates.
To improve the performance of the distribution network of supply chain, radio frequency identification (RFID) is applied to the supply chain management. According to the theory of CONWIP strategy of single manufacturing plant, RFID-enable electronic card system is designed and RFID-enable CONWIP control strategy is realized in the distribution network. The strategy is optimized by the simulation-based self-adaptive global best harmony search (SGHS) optimization method, results demonstrate the feasibility of the method. The strategy is compared with other control strategies based on the RFID, simulation results show that the RFID-enable CONWIP strategy is effective and superior in the distribution network management.
Considering a mixed market with both strategic consumers and myopic consumers, we investigate the optimal introduction strategy of vertically differential products. The interaction between the firm's product introduction and the consumers' strategic behavior is analyzed by two-stage dynamic pricing models under three strategies, namely, simultaneous introduction, sequential introduction of low-quality product followed by high-quality product, and sequential introduction of high-quality product followed by low-quality product. It shows that the optimal introduction strategy is depended on the impact of strategic consumer behavior (i.e., market size or patience of strategic consumers) and quality-to-cost ratio. Due to higher cannibalization effect and lower segmentation advantage, it will never be a best option for the firm to introduce higher-quality product after lower-quality product. If the quality-to-cost ratio is low and the influence of strategic consumer behavior is strong, the sequential introduction of higher-quality product followed by lower-quality product can mitigate the negative impact of strategic consumer behavior much more than the simultaneous introduction. However, if the quality-to-cost ratio is high and the influence of consumer behavior is moderate, the simultaneous introduction is better due to the higher advantage of market segment.
For the carbon emission reduction cooperation decisions in a retailer-led supply chain with the consideration of consumer's preference for low-carbon products and cap-and-trade policy, decentralized decision-making in Stackelberg game and vertical Nash game and centralized decision-making models with supplier's investment in emission reduction were proposed based on the Stackelberg decentralized decision-making model without supplier's investment. Conditions about carbon emission reduction investment and game selection were obtained and changes in retail price, emission reductions, market demand and profits of the supply chain members were examined. It shows that carbon emission reduction by the supplier's investment increases the profits of both the supplier and the retailer, and the supplier's profit in Nash game is higher than that in Stackelberg game. However, neither Stackelberg game nor vertical Nash game can achieve the coordination of low-carbon supply chain. The retail price of low-carbon products lower than that of ordinary product can be achieved under certain conditions, that is, low carbon products do not indicate high prices. Retailer has driving force to cooperate with supplier to reduce emissions. So, a Nash bargaining game where the wholesale price was decided cooperatively by the supplier and the retailer, was developed to realize carbon emission reduction cooperation and allocate the supply chain profit. Finally, the models were validated by numerical example.
Financial market is a complex nonlinear system. In an uncertain environment, how to optimally allocate of resources in the limited time domain is one of the core problems of the financial theory research. It becomes helpless for Markowitz's portfolio theory, and capital asset pricing model (CAPM) and arbitrage pricing theory (APT) when facing with the large amount of uncertainties in real world. In this paper a continuous-time portfolio selection optimization decision is made with control on downside risk and minimax principle under uncertain environment, a typical portfolio selection model is established by use of Bellman principle of optimality and the HJB equation. We derive the optimal strategy with general stochastic control technique and numerical approximation algorithm for multi-grid computing. The effectiveness of the asset allocation strategy under process risk control is verified by empirical method in Chinese capital market.
Inviting social forces to participate into affordable housing projects is an important way to promote sustainable development of housing security and optimize the supply mechanism of public service. The empirical evidences show that the level of participation of social forces is still low and the driving forces are not enough in China. Based on the game theory, this paper studies the evolution path of behavioral strategy in the progress of cooperation between government and social forces in affordable housing projects, then analyses the dynamic mechanism and key factors of cooperation. The results show that it is hard for social forces to take part in affordable housing projects actively without exogenous processes. In other words, effective regulations of government are needed. Combined with the empirical analysis, the most important reasons of deficiency of regulation efficiency are incomplete incentive and restraint mechanism and hysteretic environmental construction of institution. Finally, based on the present situation in our country and drawn the experiences of developed countries, the paper puts forward some policy suggestions which are increasing the intensity of rewards and punishments, innovating management system, enhancing supervision and evaluation and intensifying propaganda guide. The research conclusions have certain reference value on promoting the multiple participation and market-oriented operation of Chinese affordable housing projects.
In order to objectively evaluate the quality of China's new urbanization, this paper built a new evaluating indicator system by introducing the indicators which characterize the characteristics of the times' development. And we assessed the new urbanization quality since 2001 based on the entropy weight disturbance model. The results show that the quality of China's new urbanization has been clearly divided into three stages since 2001, and the quality of urbanization has been improved continuously, especially, there has been a marked improvement after 2011. Meanwhile, in terms of regional distribution, the quality of China's new urbanization shows a marked decline from east to west in 2013.
Adding capacity policy allows doctors use additional capacity to satisfy patient demand when all regular capacity is booked. This paper is studied for a high demand outpatient, which serves scheduled patients and same-day patients. The impact of the uncertainty of patient no-show on the overload brought by additional capacity is incorporated. This paper aims to determine the number of additional capacity and the number of regular capacity allocated to the scheduled patients towards the maximal expected profit. We prove that the expected profit is the unimodal function of additional capacity when its number exceeds a threshold. The threshold expression is also derived in theory. Hence, the optimal additional capacity number can be searched within a finite solution space. Based on the unimodality, a two-tier enumeration algorithm is proposed to search the global optimal joint solution. Numerical experiments indicate that the designed algorithm performs efficiently on solving the model. The number of additional capacity increases with no-show rates, and is hardly affected by the regular capacity. Moreover, the adding capacity effectively enhances the stability of the number of regular capacity allocated to scheduled patients when facing changes of no-show probabilities.
This paper proposes an effective method to control the operation cost of medicine logistics activities and to improve the robustness of medicine logistics scheduling for hospital pharmacy trusteeship. Initially, medicine logistics activities in the hospital's pharmacy is constructed as a multi-layer time-space network and then the problem is formulated as a multi-commodities flow problem. Considering uncertain demand in each node, uncertain service time between each two nodes and the variable service cost, a stochastic programming model is presented for the medicine logistics planning with the background of hospital pharmacy trusteeship. A hybrid genetic algorithm which compared with a special selection rule is designed for solving the optimization model. Also, an evaluation method is presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed model. The test results show that the optimized result will be obtained when the selection coefficient is set to be 0.6. Although the gaps between the two results in each planning cycle are different, the gap for the whole planning time is 0.56% only. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis shows that there will be an optimal break-even point for the safety stock setting.
Traditional facility location is usually viewed as a deterministic problem. But there exist many uncertain factors (i.e. demand, cost, risk) in a varying environment, which increase difficulties in facility location. Based on considering single uncertainty respectively, we integrate two independent multiplicative uncertainties (demand and transportation cost) together, introduce two budget uncertainty parameters, formulate a novel and intractable nonlinear robust facility location model, and then converse this nonlinear problem into a robust mixed integer linear counterpart. We also use CPLEX and MATLAB for programming to solve this problem. Finally, we choose 13 cities to decide the location-allocation solutions for temporary emergency supplies in Northwest Sichuan. Numerical results show that, compared with transportation cost uncertainty, demand uncertainty has a strong impact on the total cost. Demand disturbance also affects the total cost and location-allocation solution significantly. According to their risk preferences, decision-makers choose the optimal combination of budget uncertainty and demand disturbance proportion, so as to minimize the total cost and get optimal location-allocation solution.
In order to study the problem of air transport network optimization and parcels' delivery scheme of express companies, this paper relaxes the constraint of time tolerance on first come first serve (FCFS). A bi-level programming model is constructed, the upper model determined the routes of cargo aircrafts owned by the express companies, the amount of the rental bellies on each link, the delivery scheme of all the parcels is decided in the lower model. The related data of fourteen cities served by SF Air Express Company are used to verify the model. The delivery schemes of parcels under different time tolerance are compared based on the network optimized by the upper model. The results show that the total transport cost of parcels decreases as the tolerance increment, while the total transport time increases, which indicates that the FCFS mode is not the most economical one, and the express companies may optimize their transport networks and delivery schemes by taking use of the time tolerance.
From the commuters' acceptable perspective, using the utility function of constant elasticity of substitution (CES), the paper formulates a fixed demand commuting model based on the combination policy of tradable credit scheme and encouraged carpooling, in which a coefficient for government support on carpooling behaviors is added into the constraint condition of travel budget, and then makes an analysis on commuters' mode choices. The results show that this combination policy can effectively guide some solo commuters become the carpool commuters, and the commuting individuals can reduce their travel budget without damaging their original commuting demand, although the budget reduction for individuals preferring solo commuting is relatively small. Additionally, it shows that there exists a feasible region for setting the adjustment factors and encouraged carpooling coefficients, and there is a corresponding lower bound of adjustment factor for different encouraged carpooling coefficient. Once the adjustment factor and the encouraged carpooling coefficient are given, the credit price is uniquely determined by the market, and it is higher for a lower adjustment factor and a higher encouraged carpooling coefficient.
This paper proposed a joint periodical inspection and spare parts policy for a single-unit system subject to a three-stage failure process. In such a policy different maintenance activities are performed depending on the state of the system at inspections. When the system is in the normal state, do nothing; imperfect maintenance (IPM) is performed once a minor defect is found and the proportional age reduction model is adopted to describe the effect of IPM; however, once a severe defect is detected the system should be replaced. The spare parts state should be considered if the replacement is required for the system, and there are three different scenarios. The first is that spare parts are available such that replacement can be carried out immediately, the second is that spare parts have been ordered but not delivered so a delayed replacement is performed till the arrival time of spare parts, and the last is that no spare parts are ordered then an immediate order is placed and replacement till the arrival time of spare parts. The objective function minimizing the long-run expected cost per unit time is developed by considering all possible renewal events using the renewal award theorem in order to optimize the inspection interval and the ordering point. Finally, the enumeration optimization algorithm and discrete simulation algorithm are designed, respectively; and the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed model are illustrated by a numerical example.
With different transport strategies, the refined oil secondary distribution could be divided into two modes:one claims that the different products required by a gas station must be entirely delivered by one single vehicle, and the other is permitted to use several vehicles. We formulate each mode as an integer programming model based on a multi compartment refined oil distribution model with the time window. An ant colony and tabu search hybrid algorithm (ACO-TS) with different solution strategies is proposed to solve those two models. Computational experiments are performed on 12 instances. The results show that the hybrid algorithm is highly effective and special neighborhood structures for the second model are advantageous in increasing solving speed. In addition, the second mode that different products required by a gas station may be brought by several vehicles could reduce the distribution cost and significantly increase the load rate with less vehicles.
The accumulative generation operator of traditional DGM(1,1) model does not consider that data volatility will affect the data development trend. This limitation makes a homogenous exponential growth prediction model difficult to simulate stochastic oscillation sequence. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a stochastic oscillation analysis method based on the mean value sequence of raw data, and design a new accumulative operator using trigonometric function values during its weight generation. Based on this accumulative operator, a new DGM(1,1)atan model with variable weights is provided. Finally, this model is used to forecast data in field of marine water quality monitoring. Result shows the effectiveness and practicability of the proposed model.
Knowledge is the basis of the emergency decision-making. Aiming at the problem of requiring multi-disciplinary knowledge to support emergency decision-making, on the strength of the knowledge-unit model, the paper built emergency decision-making knowledge model which provide basic support for emergency knowledge acquisition and knowledge fusion accurately, and solve the problem of multi-disciplinary knowledge representation and sharing. From the perspective of system science and management science, the paper introduced a new fusion method considering the fuzziness of knowledge to solve the conflict between the reality and results produced by existing method, which improve the accuracy and scientific of fusion results. Finally, an example of subway fire event was used to verify the practicability and superiority of the proposed model in the emergency knowledge representation and fusion.
Metro emergency has always been the social concerned issues in which information diffusion is one of the most important concerns as sometimes it will decide the severity of the emergency. On the background of metro emergency, the local communication and bounded rationality as well as two stages:before and after the subway stops in the station are taken into account based on the traditional bounded confidence model to create the information diffusion model in metro emergency. On the basis of large amounts of simulation experiments, it is found that both local communication and bounded rationality will cause the opinions of passengers fluctuating severely and the whole opinion system in an unstable state but the passenger density has a positive effect on the opinions reaching a consensus. In the stage of subway stopping, the nearer passengers move to the subway door, the more severely the passengers' opinions fluctuate with the end of reaching a consensus sharply. But with evacuation speed increasing, the fluctuation of opinions is weaken. Results in the paper can be adapted to explain the phenomenon as well as the control of information diffusion in the metro emergency.
Food safety internet public opinion has important significance for food safety management. In this paper, according to the characteristics of food safety internet public opinion, using MATLAB software to simulate the transmission process of public opinion on the basis of considering the authenticity of information, the information identify capability of netizen, the degree of trust of netizen on the ones who transmission information and so on, and investigate the transmission mechanism of food safety internet public opinion. The results show that, we can increase the transmission probability of food safety network information which have higher authenticity in public opinion by reducing information publishing node and centralized publish food safety network information, as well as enhancing food safety knowledge publicity and training and improving the public's capability of identify food safety information.
Information overload of crowdsourcing systems makes workers facing task selection problem. According to the characteristics of crowdsourcing, the study puts forward a method of task recommendation based on the workers' interest and competency. On the basis of collaborative filtering recommendation, this method firstly builds the worker model based on workers' interest through using the TF-IDF scheme, and builds the new worker model by integrating KSAO competency set on the basis of the theory of competency analysis into the above worker model; According to the new worker model, this paper calculates the comprehensive similarity integrated interest with competency by Cosine similarity, Jaccard similarity and improved Cosine similarity, and then finds the nearest neighbors for target workers and finally makes the recommendation. Finally, using real data from the website of ZBJ to experiment, the results showed the effectiveness of the method, and through the contrast experiment proved that this method is better than traditional collaborative filtering method. This paper enriched the task selection study of crowdsourcing from the perspectives of recommendation, and has a certain practical significance of solving information overload, enhancing personalized experience and so on for crowdsourcing.
Based on the characteristics of the ordinary evaluation methods and the application of harmony degree equation (HDE), this paper puts forward a new evaluation method called HDE; According to the two common types of the current evaluation methods (classification-grade evaluation method and comprehensive degree evaluation method), the evaluation steps and calculation process of HDE are described respectively. For the classification-grade evaluation method, it can not only be used to the single-factor evaluation, but also used to multifactor comprehensive evaluation by setting the value of HD(y0). For the comprehensive degree evaluation, parameters in the HDE equation can be determined based on specific issues to calculate the HD and then to estimate the evaluation results of comprehensive degree. The application results show that the HDE evaluation method has similar evaluation steps with ordinary evaluation methods, but it has its distinctive advantages. HDE evaluation method can better present the evaluation results and has good universality and flexibility. Obviously, HDE evaluation method can be promoted and applied to the general problem evaluation.
A parallel emergency management method is put forward, in order to solve the problem of emergency management of mine water inrush. The artificial model of mine water inrush system is constructed by making the main elements of mine water inrush system as mapping objects based on multi-agent system. Water inrush computational experiment is studied by 4D management in the orient. Based on the two aspects of the water inrush perception in normal state and the experimental auto emergency plan, the parallel execution of system is discussed. The method can directly affect or change the actual system by artificial system, so it is the concept of awareness and understanding of nature, and use or changing the nature. It can provide feasible integrated management and control for mine water inrush safety management.